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On Labor Day,in 1973,A dozen military officials furtively gathered in an office of A deserted Pentagon building in Washington DC to discussthat is a pity。1973年美国劳动节当天,在美国华盛顿特区五角大楼荒废建筑物的一个办公室里,12名军官被秘密召集起来,大部分历史学家(更不用说选民)对目前被称为全球定位系统(GPS)的网络的此次会议一无所知。


这是失望I have been reading a new book,pinpoint,by American journalist Greg Milner,Which seeks to explain how GPS came into being and how it now我正在读美国记者格雷格米尔纳写的新书010300,它是我读过的最感人、最有趣、但最震撼的现代科学书籍之一。今天,我们大部分人不仅驾驶偷偷沉迷于GPS的——,还用智能手机和其他设备运营很多功能。Milner calculates that there are already about five billion devices in the world that use GPS(including three billion smart phones),already“this extraordinary system began as an American military application,A way to improve the accuracy of bombs and keep bomber pilots safe“[but]today its tentacles are everywhere.米尔纳写道:“这个奇特的系统本来就是美国的军事应用,旨在提高轰炸精度,保障轰炸机飞行员的安全。”但是现在触角无处不在,”米尔纳写道。

As with so much of our cyber economy,most of us have no clue how GPS worksnor that the entire system is run by an obscure squadron of the us air force based near Colorado springs . if you start looking into the network,It beed(威廉莎士比亚、科罗拉多、空军、空军、空军、空军、空军、空军)研究GPS网络时,GPS的故事更引人注目。特别是因为,如果GPS失败,有必要考虑可能再次发生的情况。(比尔盖茨,天啊)(By any standards,it is an extraordinary tale,in part because)。Instead,they perceived the world as contours radiating out from their home . from the ancient Greeks onwards,Many cultures assumed that the正如考古学家、历史学家和人类学家所说,人类从古至今对周围世界的想象再次发生了巨大的变化。


在古希腊,很多文化指出太阳围绕地球转。when people started roaming the globe with chronometers and peering at the sky with telescopes,It changed their perspective . the polish astrons之后我们学会了制作比主管更准确的客观地图。GPS alters this perspective again . it uses signals from four or more GPS satellites at a time(out of about 30 orbiting the planet)to pinping bing它利用4个以上GPS卫星同时接收的信号(大约30个围绕地球旋转的卫星)定位。把我们放在我们地图的中心。

that lets us navigate our surroundings with once-unimaginable precision but it also enables something else to occur that is important 3360 we ce它以以前无法想象的精度在我们周围的环境中指导我们,但也让其他最重要的事情再次发生。我们现在也可以为其他物体探索系统了。When GPS finally came of age,this technology was initially used to guide bombs,Most notably in the first gulf war . today those satellites guide该技术首次被GPS用作最后成熟期的精确制导炸弹,最引人注目的是在第一次海湾战争中使用。今天,这些卫星是从飞机到油轮、医院手术到金融交易等多种物体导航系统。

当然还有我们的车As technological leaps go,this feels almost miraculous,And it might give some grounds for optimism in relation to other seemingly intraction在技术进步方面,这看起来完全是一个整体:The danger is that The more we become dependent on this magical technology,The more potentially vulnerable we become,Too.milner危险是,我们越依赖这种神秘的技术,就越有可能变得脆弱。例如,米尔纳引用了神经学家的有趣研究,这些研究表明,当人们依赖GPS导航系统时,如果在理解水平上停止与周围环境的对话,大脑可能不会改变。(威廉莎士比亚,Northern Exposure(美国电视连续剧),)More worrying still,as our modern transport,industry and infrastructure networkISIS、for example、uses GPS-enabled smart phones in its attacks。


the truly scary thing about our modern cyber world is that nothing now seems truly invulnerable . so perhaps the real moral of the tale is that the nener the对现代互联网世界真正可怕的是,今天一切确实不是坚不可摧的。所以,也许这个故事给我们的是,下次坐车、关掉智能手机或做其他事情的时候,要绕着地球,对肉眼看不见的卫星默默感谢。

(阿尔伯特爱因斯坦,Northern Exposure(美国电视),)然后想想,如果GPS突然失败,怎么办?这种想法不会让人茫然。



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